Vol. XV Nr. 2
Jutta M. Hartmann
Apparent exceptions to the definiteness effect in English
Abstract: In this article, new data from a corpus study and experimental data concerning the definiteness effect in English there-sentences is presented. In the corpus data, we find noun phrases including both strong quantifiers like every and definite expressions. It is shown that these examples are exceptional in the sense that they give rise to cardinal readings of the strong quantifier every and the definite determiner the. As cardinal readings are generally not ruled out by the definiteness restriction, these readings are not exceptions to the definiteness effect.
Keywords:there-sentences, existentials, definiteness effect, strong vs. weak quantifiers
On the scalar structure of the adjective: the case of Romanian resultative constructions
Abstract: The aim of the present paper is two-fold. On the one hand, based on the fact that AP resultative constructions are severely restricted in Romanian (and more generally in Romance languages), the paper offers a range of devices that improve the interpretation of (i) unambiguous depictive/attributive structures, and (ii) ambiguous depictive/attributive–resultative sentences towards an unambiguous result reading. On the other hand, it discusses the reasons why these strategies derive such an interpretation and it proposes a syntactic structure for the resulting AP constructions. The underlying idea is that the predicates of these newly obtained structures are all adjuncts and not complements.
Keywords: adjective, resultative construction, scalar structure, adjunct, complement, Romanian
Micro-parametric variation in Romance causative constructions
Abstract: The paper deals with the syntax of analytic causative constructions with infinitival and subjunctive complementation. The study puts special emphasis on the syntactic position of the embedded subject (sensitive to the type of complement selected by the causative verb) and delves into the micro-parametric variation of Catalan, Spanish, and Romanian causatives. Sound empirical evidence indicates that Romance causatives are built on two different underlying structures: one involves complex predicate formation; the other Exceptional Case Marking of the embedded subject by the causative verb. We argue in favour of (i) treating the complex faire-infinitive construction as an instance of restructuring, in which faire is a restructuring verb and the infinitive a defective domain (Catalan), and (ii) analyzing the causative constructions with pre-infinitival subjects in Spanish and Romanian as cases of Exceptional Case Marking (in Chomsky’s 2000 and 2001 framework).
Keywords: analytic causatives, restructuring, Exceptional Case Marking, object shift
A syntactic approach to Udmurt Causatives
Abstract: Causative constructions in Udmurt evince crucial syntactic properties, like double-objects or alternation in case-marking pattern. Following Marantz’s (1997 and 2001) distributive morphology account and Pylkkänen’s (2002 and 2008) complement selecting causatives, I claim that these contradictory syntactic properties derive from the fact that the complex causative predicates are formed in the syntax. The Udmurt causatives, just like the Hungarian ones, are monoclausal but bi-eventive constructions, as revealed by scope tests, e.g. negation or low adverbials.
Keywords: causatives, syntactic analyses, clausality, eventivity, case-pattern
Classifiers of quantity and quality in Romanian
Abstract: The present paper proposes that classifiers in Romanian pertain to two distinct categories: classifiers of quantity or “massifiers” and classifiers of quality or “count-classifiers”, to borrow the terms from Cheng and Sybesma (1999). The first category is represented by the first nominal in a pseudopartitive construction of the type o bucată de brânză / a piece of cheese (Tănase-Dogaru 2009). The second category is represented by the first nominal in the so-called restrictive appositives, an example of which is Planeta Venus / the planet Venus (van Riemsdijk 1998, Cornilescu 2007). An important result of the paper is the unification under a similar treatment of concepts which are generally offered different analyses in the literature.
Keywords: classifier, massifier, pseudopartitive, restrictive appositives
Alexandra Cornilescu and Ruxandra Cosma
Restructuring strategies as means of providing increased referentiality for the internal argument of the de-supine clause
Abstract: We analyse supines introduced by the complementizer de, regarding the syntax and interpretation of the internal argument (= IA). Syntactically, we focus on how the IA values its case feature. It is argued that complementizer de supine clauses are not homogeneous in this respect, but present three case-valuation strategies. In non-restructuring supines, the verb gets [uφ]-features by agreeing with the prepositional complementizer and subsequently licensing its IA. In restructuring supine clauses the case of the IA is valued by a functional head of the main clauses, the IA stays in the supine clause. Finally, in raising supines, the IA is licensed by a matrix functional head, but it overtly raises into the main clause. From an interpretative perspective, these three types of clauses differ regarding the semantic range of the IA; restructuring is a means of enlarging the range of available IA for the supine verb.
Keywords: de-supines, internal arguments, non-restructuring, restructuring, raising
L. Trask. 2010. Why Do Languages Change? (Reviewed by Andrei A. Avram)
Mark Irwin. 2011. Loanwords in Japanese. (Reviewed by Cristina Bălan)
Natalie Schilling. 2013. Sociolinguistic Fieldwork. (Reviewed by Costin-Valentin Oancea)
Adina Dragomirescu. 2013. Particularităţi sintactice ale limbii române în context romanic. Supinul. (Reviewed by Veronica Tomescu)