Quantifier preposing in French and Italian as a root phenomenon: a syntactic or a pragmatic approach?
Abstract: On the basis of a corpus research it is shown that quantifier preposing in French and Italian, arguably a focalization mechanism, is a root phenomenon, occurring only in root-clauses and in root-like clauses. It is furthermore shown that other types of focalization in the left periphery in French and Italian are not root phenomena, in accordance with Emonds’ claim for English clefting. The question is why there should be such a difference. Three recent approaches to root phenomena are discussed, a syntactic one, a pragmatic-semantic one, and a mixed one. A mixed analysis of the focalization data is proposed.
Keywords: root transformation, focalization, French, Italian, quantifier preposing
Mihaela Adriana Marchis
“Move vs. Agree”: the case of Clitic Doubling
Abstract: This paper continues the long-standing discussion whether clitics in clitic doubling constructions should be regarded as being similar to affixes expressing subject-verb agreement or rather as reflexes of movement. A crosslinguistic comparison of clitics will show that although clitics come in different flavors either as phi-features or as determiners, they are all the result of an overt feature movement to repair violations of the Minimal Link Constraint (Anagnostopoulou 2005). Long Distance Agree constructions in Greek, Romanian and Spanish use clitic doubling as a strategy to avoid minimality effects. On the basis of a parallel between clitic doubling and Long Distance Agree, I conclude that they are the outcome of two different operations Move vs. Agree but both are sensitive to Minimal Link Constraint and are regulated by a phase-based locality condition (the Phase Impenetrability Condition).
Keywords: clitics, Minimal Link Constraint, Move, Agree
The “PRO-N” clitic en/ne and the theory of cliticization
Abstract: The Romance pro-N clitic (Fr., Cat.) en / (It.) ne is problematic for most theories of cliticization, because some phenomena support a movement analysis, while others seem to speak against movement. Endorsing the view that the pro-N clitic is the result of movement, this paper argues that the problems of this analysis can be solved by assuming that this clitic does not represent an N or NP, but rather a functional head intermediate between D/Q and N (probably Num), whose complement is empty after the DP-phase is completed. Consequently, I propose that the theory of cliticization should be modified in order to allow “dynamic minimality”: only minimal elements may cliticize, but non-minimal elements may become minimal in the course of the derivation, if their complement has a null spell-out.
Keywords: clitics, nominal ellipsis, DP syntax, X0-status, Romance
Romanian double-definites: double-DP qualitatives
Abstract: The paper proposes that there are two types of binominal qualitative constructions in Romanian: single-DP qualitatives and double-DP qualitatives (henceforth SDPQs and DDPQs). The constructions falling in the first category will be analyzed as single projections while the second type of qualitatives will be shown to display the behavior of dual projections (van Riemsdijk 1998). As single projections, SDPQs consist of a DP-embedded split NP; on the other hand, DDPQs consist of two full DPs.
Keywords: double-DP qualitative, single-DP qualitative, double-definites, P-features
On the functional vs. lexical nature of restructuring heads: evidence for a fine-grained classification of restructuring modals
Abstract: This paper examines in detail the thematic and syntactic properties of a set of (non-)restructuring structures in Germanic, Romance and Basque. Based on the comparison of these structures, I propose a fine-grained classification of (non-)restructuring constructions that include Functional Restructuring, Semi-Lexical Restructuring, Lexical Restructuring and Non-Restructuring constructions. The four types involve complements of different underlying structures (VPs, vPs or even as large as NegP/TPs). The results of the analysis argue against Cinque’s (2005) hypothesis that all restructuring verbs are exclusively functional, and contradicts Wurmbrand’s (1999) claim that, within the mixed class of restructuring verbs, modals must be raising verbs.
Keywords: functional restructuring, (semi-)lexical restructuring, modals, Germanic, Romance, Basque
Perfectivity might not scope over modality
Abstract: The present paper provides an account of the behaviour of the English modals with respect to the perfective aspect of their complement. The differences in reading (external vs. internal perfect) are argued to be contingent on the structural position of the modal in syntax and on the availability of a polarity-changing conditionality feature on the modal.
Keywords: modals, perfective aspect, external perfect, internal perfect, counterfactuality
Temporal deixis in early child Romanian
Abstract: This paper investigates the contrastive use of tense-aspect inflections in early child Romanian. It focuses on the use of the prezent, perfect compus and the periphrastic future morphologies. It finds evidence of the ability to inflect a significant number of the verbs in all the tenses mentioned below the age of 3;0. Additionally, by analysing the context of occurrence of these child predicates, it shows that a basic system of temporal deixis becomes operative before the above-mentioned age. Consequently, the evidence presented by the paper runs against the claims of the Aspect First Hypothesis.
Keywords: tense, aspect, morphology, deixis, acquisition
Roberta d’Alessandro, Susann Fischer and Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson (eds.) Agreement Restrictions. (Reviewed by Oana Săvescu)
Lisa Lim and Nikolas Gisbone (eds.) The Typology of Asian Englishes. (Reviewed by Gabriela Anidora Brozbă)
Daniel Schreier & Karen Lavarello-Schreier. Tristan da Cunha and the Tristanians. (Reviewed by Andrei A. Avram)