Prenominal and postnominal reduced relative clauses: arguments against unitary analyses
Abstract: These last years, several analyses have been proposed in which prenominal and postnominal reduced relatives are merged in the same position. Kayne (1994) claims that both types of reduced relative clauses are the complement of the determiner. More recently, Cinque (2005) has proposed that both types are merged in the functional projections of the noun, at the left edge of the modifier system. In this paper, I argue against a unitary analysis of prenominal and postnominal participial reduced relatives.
Keywords: reduced relatives, participle, postnominal eventives, prenominal eventives, prenominal statives, pronominal resultatives
The temporal interpretation of free relatives in English and Romanian
Abstract: Free relatives have been defined as types of relative clauses with a covert antecedent, which is semantically and syntactically active (de Vries 2002, GALR II:218), influencing the morphology of the wh– word which introduces the free relative. The aim of this paper is to take a closer look at the semantic properties of the covert antecedent and demonstrate that its temporal interpretation influences the choice of tense form that can surface in the relative clause.
Keywords: free relatives, covert antecedent, temporal interpretation
Ion Giurgea and Elena Soare
When are adjectives raisers? Tough to get it
Abstract: This article deals with some unsolved problems raised by tough-adjectives in Romance languages. We present some new data from some Romance languages (Romanian, French, Italian) supporting a raising analysis, and we argue that in these languages, unlike in English, infinitivals in tough-constructionss are reduced structures, which do not case-mark the object. Since arguably the same reduced structures appear in modal non-finite relatives, we will extend our analysis to these constructions.
Keywords: adjective, raising, infinitive, tough-constructions, Romance
The distribution of referential adjectives in psych nominalizations in English and Romanian
Abstract: Previous accounts of referential adjectives have examined their status in the structure of action nominalizations in correlation with the event vs. result interpretation of nominals. They have been argued to behave like noun phrases (Grimshaw 1990), to introduce new entities into the discourse (Giorgi and Longobardi 1991) or to simply modify deverbal nominals (Oersnes and Markantonatou 2002). This paper attempts a comparative study of referential adjectives in psychological nominalizations in English and Romanian. We argue that the restrictions on the occurrence of referential adjectives in psych nominalizations are imposed by the language specific functional structure of the DP. The paper is organized as follows. In section one we briefly overview the literature on referential adjectives in action nominalizations. In section two we look at the distribution of referential adjectives in psychological nominalizations and in section three we correlate modification by referential adjectives with the process vs. result interpretation of psych nominals.
Keywords: referential adjective, nominalization, process, result, English, Romanian
Concord and agreement in the Romance nominal expression
Abstract: Why are nominal expressions (NEs) and clauses so similar and yet so different? Can we derive all the differences between these two syntactic objects from a unique formal feature of either and the similarities from general requirements on syntactic structure? This paper reduces the similarities between NEs and clauses to three recursive relations triggering Merge: selection, modification, and projection. The differences are reduced to the propositional vs. referential properties of these syntactic objects. The truth value resulting from the propositional nature of clauses is the intersection of Person, Time and Polarity, while nominal reference is uniquely related to Person (which includes Number). Intersection occurs with the person feature of a possessor when present.
Keywords: nominal expression, concord, agreement, selection, modification, projection
Some notes on semi-lexical silence in Dutch noun phrases
Abstract: In this article, it is argued that the Dutch nominal expression Anna’s in the dialectal Dutch sentence We kwamen Anna’s tegen (We met Anna’s; ‘We met Anna’) is a hidden possessive noun phrase consisting of the proper name Anna and a silent grammatical noun PERSON in the sense of Kayne (2003). A similar analysis will be proposed for a temporal expression like Dinsdags (Tuesday-s; ‘(on) Tuesday’), with the difference that TIME is the silent noun. It is further argued that PERSON and TIME have the characteristics of what Emonds (1985) calls a grammatical (i.e. semi-lexical) noun.
Keywords: nominal expression, silent PERSON, temporal expression, silent TIME, Dutch
Silent semi-lexical classifiers in Romanian
Abstract: This paper addresses the question of classifiers in Romanian, i.e. a language with plural morphology. I will propose that pseudo-partitive constructions consist of a classifier-noun sequence, where the classifier is a semi-lexical or functional noun. The ClasP will be conceived of as emerging above NumP in all ‘count’ situations (see Kayne 2003). The head of the ClasP in languages with plural morphology may be filled with semi-lexical material (see van Riemsdijk 1998, 2003) – as in the case of pseudo-partitive constructions – or, building on Kayne’s (2003) proposal, with an abstract noun NUMBER.
Keywords: pseudo-partitive construction, classifier (phrase), semi-lexical noun, Romanian
On classifiers and proper names
Abstract: The paper discusses the functional structure of proper names (PNs) in relation to descriptive PNs, verbs of naming, and non-literal uses of PNs. We propose that the functional structure of PNs includes not only a D [+def, j, +Person], but also a qualitative classifier. This proposal reflects the intuition that a complete understanding of a PN requires identifying the kind of entity that it names. The hypothesis of a classifier in the functional structure of PNs provides a natural analysis for descriptive PNs (e.g. Regina Victoria) since, with descriptive PNs, the otherwise silent classifier head is overt. Secondly, we argue that in the naming constructions PNs are mentioned, not used. The function is signalled by the presence of a [name] classifier in the structure of the PN. This analysis allows us to treat PNs as referring expressions, specifically as constants in all their uses. Finally, classifiers are also helpful in interpreting non-literal uses of PNs, since they mostly involve formation of a new category or class, prototypically represented by the literal referent of the PN. The information supplied by the classifier is instrumental in this type inference.
Keywords: proper name, functional structure, naming construction, classifier
On the nature of proper names and definite descriptionsfrom a cognitive perspective
Abstract: In the present study, I present an analysis of proper names and definite descriptions based on Machery et al. (2004), in the treatment of Petho (2005a), which I revisit by pointing at several theoretical aspects not detailed or not mentioned by Petho. After presenting the experiment and its pitfalls I discuss the function and behaviour of definite descriptions, providing arguments that a cognitive approach would be more suitable to treat these linguistic phenomena.
Keywords: proper name, definite description, cognitive grammar
Camelia Constantinescu and Mihaela Tănase-Dogaru
On predicate nominals in Romanian
Abstract: This paper investigates the interpretative differences between bare singular nominal predicates (BNPs) and singular indefinite nominals in predicate position (SIPs) in Romanian, for those nouns that can appear in both types of structures. We will focus on two dimensions of their semantics: stage vs. individual levelhood, and gradability. Moreover, we will make a distinction within the class of SIPs between ‘true’ SIPs and ‘apparent’ SIPs and reveal the existence of a certain strategy for expressing (high) degree in the nominal domain: a property-denoting noun combines with a (possibly implicit) modifier that restricts the interpretation of the noun to a high degree (cf. Espinal 2004) and that triggers the insertion of the indefinite article.
Keywords: bare nominal predicate, indefinite nominal, gradability, stage-level, individual-level
Quantifier-variable relations in Romanian prepositional phrases
Abstract: This paper explores the syntactic and semantic properties of objects of prepositions in Romanian. What is peculiar about these objects is the fact that they cannot be headed by overt definite determiners, unless they are modified. I will propose that this restriction can be accounted for under the following assumptions:
i. overt definite Ds are quantificational and as such they must raise at LF;
ii. bare objects of prepositions are DPs headed by a null determiner;
iii. the null D does not undergo raising at LF;
iv. Romanian prepositions are inherently definite and as such they have a blocking effect on the raising of the overt definite D at LF. However, prepositions do not interfere with covert definite Ds, which do not raise, and
v. modifiers have a remedial effect by virtue of the fact that they introduce a situation variable.
Keywords: object of preposition, null D, modifiers, Romanian
Ilinca Crặiniceanu and Ileana Baciu
Blocking effects in the double object construction
Abstract: In this paper we examine the contrast between the morph-syntactic properties of the two objects in the double object construction and prepositional dative construction. The intriguing properties of the indirect object in the double object construction (DOC) are explained by hypothesizing that (i) the English morphological poverty of case marking on objects has Blocking effects on A’ movements of the two objects in the DOC and (ii) blocking A’ movement of the two objects in the DOC vs. non-blocking A’ movement of the two objects in the prepositional dative construction have to do with neutralisation of meaning of the two dative constructions.
Keywords: double object construction, English, blocking effects, neutralisation of meaning
Remarks on transparent adverbs
Abstract: The paper explores the contrast arising between subject/object oriented depictives and manner adverbs. We adopt Geuder’s (2004) label of “transparent” adverbs and embark upon a comparison between this particular class and manner adverbs in English and Romanian, with a look at depictive constructions as well. The problem discussed here is the ambiguity arising in Romanian where most such adverbs seem to overlap their corresponding adjectival forms. Tests will show where they have to be adjoined and the possible readings which they are attached.
Keywords: manner adverbs, depictives, transparent adverbs, English, Romanian
Moving places. The syntax of goal of motion constructions revisited
Abstract: ‘Goal of motion’ constructions have been used in the literature (Talmy 1985, Klipple 1997, Higginbotham 1999, Rappaport Hovav and Levin 2001, Ramchand and Folli 2001, etc.) as the basis for setting a parameter which distinguishes English (a satellite-framed language) from Romance languages (verb-framed languages) in terms of mapping conceptual categories such as ‘manner’ and ‘path’ onto syntactic ones (VPs and PPs). Starting from Folli and Ramchand’s analysis of ‘goal of motion’ constructions, we will show that some ‘goal of motion’ constructions in Italian and Romanian appear to force a reconsideration of the above-mentioned parameter.
Keywords: goal of motion, manner, path, verb-frame languages, satellite-framed languages
From locative to de directional preposition phrases in Romanian
Abstract: The paper discusses the (syntactic and semantic) conditions under which Romanian simple spatial prepositions render locative or directional reading of an event. It will be argued that spatial prepositions are always locative, and that the goal of motion interpretation is only available with some subclasses of motion verbs. A (semi)lexical approach to the category of P is adopted, pointing out relevant data concerning what are commonly viewed as ‘functional’ prepositions. Specifically, it will be shown that DE and PE contribute to the mapping of trajectories of motion events form semantics to syntax.
Keywords: spatial prepositions, locative prepositions, functional prepositions, Romanian
Mélanie Jouitteau and Milan Rezac
The French ethical dative. 13 syntactic tests
Abstract: We discuss the properties of ethical datives in French, assembling diagnostics to differentiate them from other datives and to establish their properties. Ethical datives are introduced above the thematic and Case/A-movement domains, and do not participate in these systems, unlike both core and extended (benefactive, possessor) datives. They are also independent of the C-system properties of Force, Finiteness and Tense. However, they are nevertheless integrated into the morphosyntax of the clause.
Keywords: ethical dative, thematic-domain, case, C-system, morphosyntax, French
On the nature of Romanian pronominal clitics
Abstract: In this paper we discuss a range of properties which rank Romanian very high in the agreement continuum argued for by Franco (2000). This would allow us to argue that Romanian pronominal clitics are advanced in the process of acquiring the status of verbal inflection. Thus the clitic could be considered an agreement marker which checks the uninterpretable features of the [T+v+V] head. The clitic spells out a D feature and also the phi-features of the T head.
Keywords: clitics, verbal inflection, agreement marker, D feature, phi-features of T
Doar and sentence polarity
Abstract: In the present work we discuss the syntactic behaviour of the Romanian focus particle doar. Through out the paper we will argue for a unitary analysis of doar as a contrastive focus marker attempting to provide a syntactic account which will explain the effects that doar has on sentence interpretation and in particular its interaction with negation. We will claim that the traditional notion of contrastive focus encapsulates in fact two different features checked in two different positions of the functional domain.
Keywords: focus, particle, Romanian, negation, feature checking, functional domain
Representing synthetic vs. analytic suffixation in Strict CV in English. Some problematic cases
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present some additions and corrections to a model I proposed in an earlier article (Kristó 2006) concerning the formal distinction between analytic and non-analytic (synthetic) suffixation, couched in a Strict CV framework. I address a question which remained unanswered in the article mentioned above: I will show that Kaye’s suggestion, i.e. that synthetic forms are phonologically indistinguishable from monomorphemic ones, is not tenable, and I also offer a working solution.
Keywords: analytic, synthetic, suffixation, Strict CV, English
Andrei A. Avram
Syllable restructuring in early Solomon Islands Pidgin English
Abstract: The present paper looks at the various syllable restructuring strategies used in early Solomon Islands Pidgin English. These depend on the phonological shape of the etyma and consist of epenthesis, paragoge and consonant deletion. Also examined is the quality of the epenthetic and of the paragogic vowels. Contrary to claims recently put forth in the literature, vowel harmony appears to play no part in the selection of these intrusive vowels. Finally, syllable restructuring in early Solomon Islands Pidgin English is shown to have striking similarities to that attested in other early varieties of Melanesian Pidgin English.
Keywords: syllable restructuring, epenthesis, paragoge, deletion, vowel harmony
Larisa Avram and Martine Coene
The root infinitive stage in a null subject language: Romance in the Balkans
Abstract: The aim of the present paper is to determine which early non-finite verbal form is the Root Infinitive analogue in Romanian, an Inflection-licensed null subject language. In particular, we investigate whether the RI-analogue is the imperative, as predicted by Salustri and Hyams’s (2003) hypothesis, or whether it is a language specific underspecified form, overused during the early stages of acquisition, as predicted by Wexler et al. (2004).
Keywords: root infinitive, null subject language, imperative, bare subjunctive